In the examination of nation and state it is necessary to investigate the idea of politicians and this was done by looking at the three broad streams of ideas which were running during Smuts’ s time namely: White reconciliation, Afrikaner nationalism and liberalism. However of the three the Afrikaner Nationalism was the most powerful but the black-led movements was the biggest challenge for the South African Government as they accepted the Freedom Charter and this conflict led one to belief that their cannot be a South African Nation. The opposite can also be true if changes are being made to the government ideas and policies or by electing a new government committed to nation building.