"The onset of climate change poses a direct challenge to small-scale agricultural production and food security in Ghana. Though this type of farming can be responsive to climatic variations, adaptation policies that promote high-resource solutions are not relevant to smallholder farmers. Climate change is already constraining agricultural productivity in Northern Ghana, but local farmers have successfully developed adaptation measures that reduce their vulnerability to climatic shocks. National climate adaptation policies — in Ghana and across Africa — could better incorporate sources of indigenous knowledge to ensure programs are cost-effective, participatory and sustainable"