‘The situation in the East and Horn of Africa sub-region continues to be deplorable basically because of the absence of environmental security-related infrastructure and/or the required level of awareness. Countries in the sub-region are vulnerable to global climate change. This is due to their relative poverty, large and growing populations, and to their relatively fragile ecological situation i.e. farming marginal and arid lands. In addition, their populations will be the most affected by shifts in rainfall patterns, the rise of the sea level, possible increase of storms and other extreme weather conditions, as well as the spread of their drylands. Other issues and perspectives touching developments in the sub-region include the environmental security debate and the need for a redefinition of the term ‘security;’ the Nile Basin conflict; oil politics and conflict in the two Sudans; piracy off the Somali coast; pastoralism in the Greater Horn of Africa sub-region and the concept of ‘human security;’ the dispute over Migingo Island; and the issue of Deegaan in Somalia, particularly in the port town of Kismayo. This article aims to provoke the thinking of the academia, policymakers and other members of the wider policy community on some of these issues. It will discuss some of the issues and perspectives touching on developments in the sub-region and at the same time provide some policy recommendations.’