This book consists of papers presented at a workshop in Malawi. The first paper “Making therapeutic choices in African Societies” explores the different factors that determine therapy choice in African societies. In African societies, a range of therapeutic alternatives are available to which people can resort during illness episodes. The paper “ Sources of risks and vulnerability among Malawian households and communities” focuses on poverty and calls for a two-stage process of addressing poverty in Malawi through capacity building and the provision of mechanism to protect Malawians from dropping back into the poverty trap. The third paper explores the possibility of supplying the poor with insecticide treated nets. The fourth article focuses on the (i) determinants of Malawi's social policy; (ii) political sustainability of social spending; (iii) fiscal sustainability of social spending; and (iv) government's funding of the social policy.