Hand in Hand for Urban Transformation Roles and Responsibilities at the Local, National and International Level to Enable Cities’ Climate Leadership
Addressing the global challenge of climate change requires unprecedented cooperation across all levels of government. Internationally the Paris Agreement sets the pace for reducing emissions and adapting to the impacts of climate change. Common objectives for the international community is contained in this agreement, namely “holding the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels and to pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels” and “increasing the ability to adapt to the adverse impacts of climate change and foster climate resilience”. The first chapter examines the question of local governments having such important roles to play in tackling climate change and what relevant parameters they can adjust to move cities forward on a low-carbon and climate-resilient path. It also visualizes the steps local governments have to take to lead cities towards becoming climate compatible urban spaces. Furthermore it reviews and illustrates the different forms of local financial sources that are available to cities. The second chapter focuses on the role of national level governments. Why are they important in guiding cities? What is their specific function and responsibility? Insights from India, Indonesia and the Philippines exemplify the set-ups and approaches that their national governments have used to best support cities, not just financially, but also in planning processes. The third chapter considers the international level and outlines why support from the international level is particularly needed to support small and medium sized cities and goes into detail about how one particular fund, the Green Climate Fund, could support cities through its financial support structure.