"This study sought to assess the interaction of gender, the socio-institutional environment and structural phenomena in influencing the extent of democratic practice, member control, patronage and receipt of benefits amongst the agricultural primary co-operative societies in Uganda. The goal was to highlight implications for creating a self-reliant sustainable development of primary co-operative societies from a socio-institutional and structural perspective. The findings revealed that democratic practice, member control, and patronage were high amongst the primary societies. However, leadership positions (an aspect of democratic practice) and participation in decision making (an aspect of member control) were monopolized by members of higher social status in communities and primary societies, i.e., the elderly, wealthy, and male founder members."