Exploring alternative approaches for managing electoral injustice in Africa: The case of breast protests in Nigeria and the sex strike in Kenya

"This study deals with three main issues. The first is the role of traditional and urban women’s movements in managing the protracted electoral crises in Nigeria and Kenya. The second is the impact of customary and orthodox repercussions of the public display of half-naked bodies and bare breasts by women and their sex-denying strategies for attaining electoral justice in Nigeria and Kenya, respectively. The third is the possibility of converting these strategies to regional tools for achieving electoral justice, peace and political stability. Conflict management in Africa has some discernible weaknesses. Firstly, concentration on formal peace processes which undermine informal avenues constitutes a major challenge. Secondly, peace processes are gendered, as women are excluded from formal processes, which are perceived as asexual. Thirdly, electoral violence is endemic to transitional democracy in Africa. Many countries in the region are yet to embrace the culture of electoral integrity and transparent elections for effecting leadership change. This study examines and compares the role of traditional and enlightened women’s movements in managing the protracted electoral crises in Nigeria and Kenya."