Exclusion and the Challenges of Peace Building in the Niger Delta : An Assessment of the Amnesty Programme

Increasingly recognized by the international community, peace-building is a necessary response to conflict situations, which seeks to prevent violent conflict or a relapse into conflict in states in transition and to build a viable and enduring basis for sustainable peace and security. In order to achieve these, DDR programmes such as PAP usually adopt inclusive programmes that have a broad coverage of packages, participation, benefit structure and multi-stakeholder management. DDR itself occurs within a framework of broad and comprehensive process of transitional policies and programmes and cannot be effective as a stand- alone and narrow programme in the movement towards sustainable development, security and peace. This study focused on the determination of the levels of inclusion as measured against best practices and standards, and in relation to the goals of sustainable peace, security and development. The work seeked to unravel the consequences of exclusion for the ex-militant formation, community youth, those impacted by the armed resistance and violence, and the citizens of the region, and what these portend for sustainable peace, security and development of the region.