"This paper addresses how land reform can contribute to enhancing land-based livelihoods. The challenge for South Africa’s land and agrarian reform programme is to alleviate the constraints to production and, in so doing, to enhance land-based livelihoods amongst the poor majority beyond the survivalist mode and to facilitate commercial production for the market amongst the elite. this paper highlights the wide variety of productive uses of land and natural resources amongst residents of communal areas and land reform beneficiaries, and the significant value of these uses. However, we also draw attention to the constraints to land-based livelihoods in general and amongst land reform beneficiaries in particular. Land use and land-based livelihoods among residents of communal areas and among land reform beneficiaries are discussed separately. We have examined the three most common forms of land use – cultivation, livestock farming and the use of natural resources. The current uses are described and, wherever possible, trends over time and the reasons for these changes are discussed. We then go on to look at land use amongst land reform beneficiaries and assess the extent to which these conform to regulations and enhance land-based livelihoods. In conclusion, we highlight some of the critical issues facing South Africa’s land and agrarian reform programme and make some recommendations for the way forward."