This case study considered two key questions: 1. The amount of progress that was made and the achievements of Rwanda since 2000? What have been the key drivers of that progress and what have been the obstacles and bottlenecks, and the role of external actors? What has been the impact of the MDG framework? 2. What are the main constraints and opportunities that faces Rwanda? What could external actors do to support national development strategies? In particular, what types of interventions, for example, finance and trade and investment, could be improved and how? In reflecting on these questions it considers the future of the global partnerships for development. The MDGs, which have shaped development cooperation since their adoption in 2000, expire in 2015. New challenges have emerged or become more acute, such as the financial crisis, the food crisis and climate change. New partnerships for development have arisen, most notably South–South cooperation. For Rwanda this raises two main questions: what kind of global framework, if any, would help the country to take forward its development agenda and specifically the pro-poor elements; and how can development partners, including Europe, help?