"This paper presents a case study of human development and climate change in South Africa. It starts by outlining the key development challenges that the country faces and the history of recent responses in development policy. Section 2 hones in on the energy sector, providing a brief profile of the sector contributing most to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The implications of South Africa’s ‘minerals-energy complex for its GHG emissions profile are examined in section 3. Section 4 discusses the context and development of South African climate change policy, and examines implementation progress to date. The final section of the paper begins with a summary analysis of key mitigation options in energy efficiency, changes in the fuel mix and structural changes. Section 5 then examines the key constraints facing the implementation of such options, before concluding with possibilities for international cooperation to contribute to sustainable development and mitigation in South Africa."