Senegal is prone to food insecurity based on its low level of access to and quality of food. Using food and nutrition security (FNS) data from the global Ending Rural Hunger (ERH) project and local sources, this paper argues that poor quality of food, low diversification of diet and consequently high prevalence of child malnutrition are the country’s major FNS challenges. Vulnerability to food security is more prevalent in rural areas and in regions with low access to factors of production and markets. Senegalese policymakers should redesign FNS policies with a particular emphasis on: (i) increasing agricultural productivity through reallocation of resources towards more targeted investments in infrastructure, research and human capital for more sustainable gains and (ii) reducing the high volatility of food production and the country’s vulnerability to environmental shocks.