Prof Tsie looked at delimitation of constituencies, demarcation of polling districts and identification of polling stations. Prof Chirwa discussed the post election situation in Malawi. He examines the mismanagement of the electoral process and the relationship between the country’s new President and his party. Christiaan Keulder discussed the use of gender quotas to enhance women’s representation at the local government level in Namibia. The effectiveness of the new legislation is being assessed in ensuring that more women candidates are appointed to local legislatures. Prof Sitoe discussed the role of civil society organizations during elections in Mozambique.