Egypt The People's Assembly and Shura Council Elections November 2011 - February 2012
"The elections covered in this report are the first post 'Arab Spring' parliamentary elections in Egypt. The 25 January 2011 'day of rage' protests in Egypt started with young people mobilising to demand the freedom to express their political rights, which they considered to have been denied them for decades. It was also a clear indication of the desperate need of citizens to shape their own destiny against the backdrop of social and economic stagnation. Prior to the 2011 revolution, President Hosni Mubarak had been in power for 30 years. His regime saw growing agitation for the restoration of democratic governance and an improvement in the economy. At the political level the 2011 Revolution' brought about freedom of expression and association with the emergence of new political parties as well as the lifting of the ban on formerly banned parties. At the socioeconomic level, the Egyptian economy has experienced a downturn since the January 2011 revolution. The political uprising had an impact on the macro-economy, leading to a severe reduction in confidence and investment outflows, as well as a drop in tourism revenues and foreign investment. The uprising and the continuing political uncertainty have created a number of economic vulnerabilities."