Climate change will play an increasingly important role in Africa, as elsewhere, during the course of the 21st century. Rising temperatures and increased frequency of extremely dry and wet years are expected to slow progress toward increased productivity of crop and livestock systems and improved food security, particularly in Africa south of the Sahara (FAO 2016). But other drivers of change in agriculture and food security are also changing in significant ways. This chapter describes the context in which policy and investment decisions will have to take place, finding that in the years leading up to 2050, African countries will continue to grow, and many will reach middle-income status. As the agricultural sector grows, it will need to become technologically more sophisticated to withstand the vagaries of climate and market conditions. Key to future growth will be regionally tailored, evidence-based efforts to address increased regional market integration and the regional shifts in agroecological conditions.