"The objective of this paper was to provide background information for in depth studies on diversification in Botswana's agricultural sector. The paper indicates that agriculture has declined in relative economic importance since independence in 1966. Sectoral transformation, or the reversal of the declining trend has not been evidenced as a result of such effort. The Paper argues that there is need to shift emphasis towards promoting the development of agro processing, rather than concentrate on primary production. The paper further underscores the importance of studying socio-economic, farm and household characteristics that have contributed to out migration from both dryland arable agriculture and non traditional agriculture."