"This policy brief explores the experiences of two of the earliest accredited NIEs: the Planning Institute of Jamaica (PIOJ) and Senegal’s Centre de Suivi Écologique (CSE). Their experiences during the AF accreditation process uncover key challenges and success factors in the direct access model, as well as lessons for other climate finance arrangements, such as the Green Climate Fund (GCF). While NIEs offer considerable benefits for many countries, we caution that, without other complementary finance mechanisms, direct access could restrict the ability of some of the most vulnerable nations to access adaptation finance."