"The study sought in-depth knowledge of the key factors that account for regional poverty differentials in Uganda so as to contribute to more focused targeting of programmes for the poor. The research objectives were: to estimate the national and regional food poverty lines to identify poor households, to compare the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of the poor households between and within the regions, to compute poverty indexes for Uganda based on national and regional food poverty lines, to identify the key determinants of regional poverty, and to derive policy implications for poverty alleviation in Uganda. The broad policy recommendation is that government should use regional poverty lines for the planning and budgetary allocation process for effective poverty alleviation."