‘Election Related Violence: Beyond Electoral Systems and Normative’ maintains that lasting solutions to election related violence should not only be sought in the technical deficiencies of the electoral process. Rather, broader structural problems of governance must also be addressed. ‘The Sudan - South Sudan Military Escalation in Heglig: Shifting Attention from Domestic Challenges’ unveils some of the strategies behind the military confrontations in Heglig. It argues that the understanding of political and economic dynamics and challenges emanating from the war is fundamental for understanding the recent crisis between Sudan and South Sudan. ‘Operationalising the Responsibility to Protect’ argues that a distinction between the responsibility to protect and regime change is, from a military stand point, illogical when intervening on behalf of a civilian population against a regime that is committing mass atrocities. Rather, the best way to ensure the protection of civilians from mass atrocities committed by regimes is to remove that regime. ‘Oil Piracy in the Gulf of Guinea’ examines the dynamics of piracy in the Gulf of Guinea, with emphasis on the modus operandi of oil pirates. ‘Private Military and Security Companies: A Comparative Analysis between Colombia and Sierra Leone’ says these days there is a general international recognition of the role private military and security companies (PMSCs) can play in a country ’s development. There is no doubt that the increase in the number of these companies has created debates about the privatisation of war, the monopoly of the legitimate use of force, and the new challenges they pose to humanitarian law. ‘Development Sensitivity for Reconciliation: Lessons Learned from Rwanda’ development is defined as a progressive satisfaction of basic human needs, both material and non-material, with the emphasis on those most in need. ‘Youth-led Peace Caravans and Inter-community Peacebuilding among Pastoralists in North-western Kenya’ article therefore argues that governance, development and peacebuilding must be approached through youth –led local peacebuilding in initiatives as demonstrated by the ‘peace caravans ’ among the Pokot, Turkana and Samburu communities.