In ‘Modern United Nations Peacekeeping: Towards a Holistic Approach to Addressing Conflict’ peacekeeping is part of the holistic approach to addressing conflict, along with conflict prevention, peacemaking, peace enforcement and peacebuilding. This report defines these concepts, and examines them as integrally related and major elements of a holistic approach to maintaining international peace and security. ‘Transnational Security Threats and Challenges to Peacekeeping in Mali’ examines the particular case of Mali’s near state capture by the convergence of criminalised transnational public-private interests, which eventually posed threats to the survival of the state. ‘The Shift to Stabilisation Operations: Considerations for African Peace Support Operations’ hopes to serve as a catalyst for a discussion within the AU on improving its approach to stabilisation, borrowing primarily from the experiences of AMISOM (African Union Mission in Somalia). ‘Enhancing the Efficiency of the African Standby Force: The Case for a Shift to a Just-in-time Rapid Response Model?’ questions whether it is time for the ASF to shift from a standing readiness model to a just-in-time rapid response model. An overview is provided of the logistical bases that can plan and support such operations, including the strategic lift arrangements necessary to deploy the RDC within the 14-day time period. ‘The Evolving Role of International Policing in Peacebuilding Processes’ provides an overview of developments on the role of police components, as part of the wider evolution of peace support operations, particularly in relation to its peacebuilding dimensions. In ‘How Can the African Standby Force Support Humanitarian Action?’ Africa continues to experience a number of humanitarian emergencies that are linked to conflicts. These are anticipated to increase, due to worsening climate change-connected natural disasters. Questions that are now being asked are: what are the connections between African peace support operations (PSOs) and humanitarian action? Two fact files are then included titled ‘SADC Standby Force: Preparation of Peacekeeping Personnel’ and ‘The Impact of Peacekeeping Operations: Successful United Nations Initiatives in Response to Sexual Exploitation and Abuse.’