Conflict-Free Minerals: Why Formalization Efforts in Eastern DRC should be Reviewed

This policy brief critically reviews formalization efforts of artisanal and smallscale mining (ASM) in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), which have had ambiguous outcomes that will have counter-productive effects (such as conflict and corruption) on peace and security in the region. To negate such effects, international organizations (like the United Nations, the International Council on Mining and Metals, and the DRC government) should prevent top-down formalization efforts, ramp up anticorruption measures, and address causes of conflict wholesomely.