Significant effort has already gone into studying how best to design a root cause fund programme - aimed at tackling the root causes of recurring cycles of conflict and fragile resilience - in order to maximize impact within what is an extremely difficult operating environment. As such, this Conflict & Gender Study aims to provide further nuancing to the understanding of the causes and consequences of conflict and violence and how these can be altered. The study draws on both a literature & document review and primary empirical data gathered through micro level analysis as means of exploring conflict and gender dynamics as they unfold in the lives of the Programme’s target population. The empirical data was collected through direct observation and various forms of interviews as a means of gaining insight into the lived experience of conflict and violence, particularly exploring how people make sense of their environment. A ‘feminist’ lens was adopted to gain insight into gender dynamics – and more specifically into power dynamics – as they unfold in the lives of the populations targeted by the Programme. The objective of the study was to provide nuanced and detailed insight, through a gendered lens, into the dynamics of conflict and violence as they unfold within targeted areas in South Sudan. Given that peace and conflict programming is largely concerned with addressing ideas, beliefs and attitudes that underpin violent behaviour, this study was broadly aimed at identifying the existing ideas, beliefs and attitudes that are in need of changing.