There are three ways to conceptualize power in society: the power of the government (the Prince), the power of the market (the Merchant), and the power of the people (the Citizen). Development history shows that the world has attempted to focus on each of these powers, hoping that they could drive socio-economic development. This compendium endeavors to showcase the role of non-state actors in the development process. It builds on case studies developed by the African Community of Practice on Managing for Development Results (AfCoP/MfDR). These case studies were selected from more than 100 developed over the period 2012-2017, to capitalize and share good practices on how to mainstream results in development processes at local, national, regional and international levels. A key lesson arising from this compendium is that non-state actors form a very diverse range of stakeholders who play different roles at various level of development in Africa. The need to associate them to the development planning and implementation process is key. This compendium compiles case studies that feature the efforts made by African countries in ensuring effective participation of this category of stakeholders in the continent's development. Finally, the compendium strongly recommends that: (i) African countries integrate elements of their cultural traditions to the modern centralized governance systems to achieve true democracies; (ii) universities are supported to accelerate the production of a critical mass of technical skills needed to increased and sustained Africa's growth and (iii) appropriate frameworks are established to drive private investments into the productive sectors