Comparative Analysis of the NDCs of Canada, the European Union, Kenya and South Africa from an Equity Perspective
In the lead-up to COP21 in Paris, 2015, all Parties to the UNFCCC were invited to communicate their intended nationally determined contributions (INDCs), which could include information on how the Party considers its INDC is fair and ambitious (1/CP.20, para 14). The same information to accompany nationally determined contributions (NDCs) was included in the Paris decision adopted at COP21. While there is extensive literature on climate equity, comparatively little research exists on equity in NDCs. Analysis of equity in NDCs is important, firstly because NDCs represent a unique step in UN climate negotiations, in that they are universal and applicable to all Parties, and secondly because NDCs are formulated bottom-up. As countries determine their own priorities and ambitions they self-differentiate their responsibilities to address climate change. This research report examines equity considerations in the domestic processes for the preparation of NDCs. Four Parties are examined in this analysis, selected based on having widely varying domestic contexts and processes for NDC preparation. The four Parties are Canada, The European Union (EU, representing 28 countries), Kenya and South Africa.