In this paper it is argued that the proof of effective climate change adaptation strategies in Nigeria lies in improved resilience of the hundreds of millions of people living in communities most vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. Involvement of local authorities and community based organisations in the development of adaptation strategies will be crucial. Risk reduction and risk management are key elements of adaptation. The remaining part of the paper reviews the key concepts relating to climate change and adaptation strategies; outlines the vulnerability to climate change in Nigeria and its impact; discusses the key elements of advocacy and adaptation strategies at the local level; and ends with some concluding comments.