Chinese Provinces as Foreign Policy Actors in Africa
"China's engagement in Africa is becoming increasingly multilayered, as provinces are stepping up efforts to expand their presence in Africa. This paper provides a general picture of how Chinese provinces feature in the overall Chinese foreign policy system. Specifically, this paper identifies Chinese provinces' role in Africa as traders, project builders, investors, aid providers and intergovernmental actors. It also discusses how African countries and China itself should cope with China's new multilayered engagement in Africa."