China-powered ICT Infrastructure: Lessons from Tanzania and Cambodia
China has become one of the most important funders of information and communications technology (ICT) networks across the Global South, and Chinese contractors are deeply involved at all levels of ICT and mobile telecom provision. Much of the research into this field has focused on geopolitical and cybersecurity aspects. However, few studies have taken into account the environmental, socioeconomic and governance (ESG) aspects of these developments. This policy brief aims to address this gap by analysing the ESG impacts of two large Chinese ICT provision projects in Tanzania and Cambodia. It shows that, compared to other infrastructure developments, these projects had relatively limited ESG outcomes. While there were minimal environmental impacts, the success of socioeconomic mitigation was mixed and projects lacked transparency.