East Africa’s coastal states are attracting increasing attention from global economic powers, not only for the opportunities within these economies themselves, but also for the access they provide through transport corridors to landlocked states in the African hinterland. This engagement is reflected in broader regional economic programmes such as China’s One Belt One Road Initiative and Japan and India’s Asia Africa Growth Corridor. There are significant opportunities related to the development of trade and infrastructure within the East African Blue Economy, but this will require addressing trade imbalances and strengthening governance to ensure that investments contribute to inclusive and sustainable development.