"There are frequent conflicts among fishing communities on Lake Chiuta mainly due to definitions of resource boundaries and membership, the limited empowerment of the user communities because of weak decentralised structures, and the application of different policy frameworks and rules on the two sides of the lake. However, opportunities exist for co-operation as the fishing communities share the same culture, traditional values and language. They recognise the roles of their traditional leaders and both governments – of Malawi and Mozambique – have adopted community participation approach in their development projects. Both countries have also signed various international conventions, agreements, and protocols that deal with conservation and management of natural resources.The overall objective of this study is to identify challenges in implementing fisheries co-management regime in the shared ecosystem of Lake Chiuta. Specifically the study aims to examine challenges of implementing a fisheries co-management regime on Lake Chiuta with specific reference to resource boundary and scale and identify constraints and opportunities of developing a transboundary co-management arrangement on Lake Chiuta at community level as a way of addressing conflicts."