"This brief set out to highlight the challenges and prospects for involvement of resource-users around trans-boundary fisheries. Whilst the countries involved have instituted CBNRM initiatives and are implementing TBNRM programmes, the actual contribution of local resource users remains undefined. It has been noted that, whilst at a political and technical level there is a platform for trans-boundary engagement, this still has to be realised at a local level. Differences between the countries in terms of policies of controlling access to and use of resources have led to local conflicts among fishers, as some have extracted more resources from the same ecosystem."