Can Africa's Contested Energy Futures Create Opportunities for Enhancing EU-African-European Relations?

The challenge of defining African energy futures gains complexity as local politics interact with geopolitical powers and global climate change concerns. The AU-EU strategy focuses on ‘innovation for green transitions’, while European companies continue to dominate African fossil fuel markets. The Chinese strategy to decarbonise their domestic markets encouraged Chinese coal industries to build abroad. How can African societies define their own energy futures without turning into ‘living sustainability labs’ or stepping into debt traps set out by foreign actors? African agency, open dialogue, transparency, evidence-based decision making and inclusive innovation can enable beneficial change that avoids foreign exploitation.