Burundi has made relatively rapid, substantial progress in democracy and easing of inter-ethnic tensions, due to its citizens desire to embrace national unity and compromise, as well as the international community’s heavy involvement in the Arusha peace process. Integration of former government security forces and CNDD-FDD rebels in a new national defence force contributed significantly to consolidating peace. However, the peace process remains fragile. To move beyond the long civil war, strengthen democratic institutions and ensure respect for the rule of law, a genuine peace agreement is needed with the PALIPEHUTU-FNL, the last active rebel group, which is not strong enough to fight a new war but remains a power in most western provinces. This requires a new commitment by the government to a negotiated solution, not a military one, and a revived facilitation effort especially by regional states.