"This paper examines budget and public expenditure across Nigerian states, from 2001-2005. It is divided into six sections. Section One discusses the conceptual definitions and theoretical arguments. It contains two sub-sections. The first sub-section deals with public spending and public goods. The second subsection describes the role of public expenditure in economic governance and macroeconomic stability. Section Two outlines the principles and practice of Nigeria's fiscal federalism and the structure of public finances among the levels of government. It reviews the assignment of development functions, tax jurisdictions and expenditure responsibilities across the tiers of government. Section Three presents and discusses evidence on budget and public spending at the state level. It analyses the budget orientation and spending behaviour of state governments and implications for economic governance and business environment at the state level. Section Four reviews the revenue sources and patterns of state governments, in relation to expenditure and loans. Section Five is an overview of budget and fiscal management at the state level. It recapitulates comparative evidence from recent comparative analysis across states. Section Six gives the conclusion and implications."