Since the year 2000, Brazilian foreign policy has expanded dramatically on the back of the country’s growing material wealth. Changes in the international system helped too. The global balance of power became more open to large developing states, and South America has experienced a range of dramatic challenges that has forced Brazil to take an increasingly assertive stance in regional affairs. Does this mean Brazil is a major power in the making? Changes in foreign policy lack the depth and strength to make them irreversible. Something more sustainable is needed. But is the country willing to pay the price?