"This study, although preliminary and exploratory in nature, considers the criminal justice measures taken by the governments of Algeria,Morocco and Tunisia to meet their international counter-terrorism obligations. These Maghreb countries have more counter-terrorism experience than most other African countries. Research-driven policy and legal reform is needed to ensure appropriate, proactive and preventative counter-terrorism action in Africa. The global counter-terrorism effort is premised upon national-level lawful actions to prevent and prosecute terrorist activity. Although counter-terrorism strategies are complex and multidimensional, this study considers one significant element: a preventative,criminal justice-based response. The overall objective of the universal counterterrorism scheme informing this approach is to harmonise all national laws to create a seamless web of preventative, punitive and international cooperative Institute for Security Studies Beyond the ‘War on Terror’ legal measures. The criminal justice system can be a primary resource in wider counter-terrorism strategies.The various merits and features of a criminal justice approach are considered in this monograph, as background to an assessment of the three countries, which has been undertaken using open-source materials. The focus is on justice systems as a mechanism for bringing terrorists and their supporters to formal justice by prosecuting or otherwise lawfully disrupting their conduct before it culminates in an overt, violent ‘terrorist act’."