Beyond ‘Shadow-Boxing’ and ‘Lip Service’ The Enforcement of Arms Embargoes in Africa

"If an Arms Trade Treaty is to be successful, it is important to have a more informed understanding of the strengths and limitations of arms embargoes. This paper, employing a comparative case study approach, therefore seeks to analyse the monitoring and enforcement of UN arms embargoes in Africa. However, like most of the literature on arms embargoes, it is limited in its scope and analysis. This is mainly owing to the lack of reliable data, the difficulty of undertaking field research, and the challenge of determining the effectiveness of arms embargoes within a maelstrom of variables."