Best Practices: Formalization and Due Diligence in Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining

This paper introduces various formalization and due diligence efforts within the ASM sector. We provide a general overview and explore examples of three countries—looking at the positive and negative impacts of these processes— to provide key lessons on ASM formalization and due diligence. The paper outlines specific ways in which governments can create an enabling environment for the ASM sector, incentivizing miner and trader participation in the formal economy, while providing businesses with the tools for engaging in proper due diligence. We provide policymakers who are planning new legislation or reforms targeting ASM, with a comprehensive view of the sector and lessons they can apply.