"Lesotho is a landlocked country within South Africa with a population of less than 2 million and is highly vulnerable to climatic changes. Agriculture remains a major source of income for more than 80% of rural population in Lesotho. Despite its contribution to Lesotho's development, the rural economy has been languishing due to poor land management and farming practices. Among other things, the overall decline is attributed to poor weather; declining fertility of land and poor management of water resources. In this study besides documenting the historical, current status and future prospects of the Machobane Farming System and of its adaptability and resilience to climate change, we also assessed the physicochemical and microbial characteristics of its soil, and present the challenges and vulnerability of the farming system."