Agriculture is the major source of income for the rural population in Lesotho. The arable land is about 9% of the total land area and the current crop yields are about half the level achieved in the late 1970s. The rural economy had been languishing due to poor land management and farming practices. The overall decline is attributed to climate change, declining land fertility and poor water resource management. This study is assessing the current status, future prospects, challenges and vulnerability of the Machobane Farming system in Lesotho.