"The peace and security situation in Africa continues to show both continuity and change. While civil wars or armed conflicts involving rebel groups remain rare, other forms of human security threats are increasingly affecting parts of the continent. This mixed and evolving peace and security landscape of the continent raises important questions about the role of the PSC. Chief among these are: a) whether the PSC is vested with the necessary authority that enables it to deal with the changes in the nature of human security threats in Africa and b)whether it requires new methods and tools or needs to adapt existing ones for handling these challenges. While, as noted in Chapter II, the PSC is vested with wide powers, member states of the AU retain much of their pre-existing sovereign authority over the management of their internal political affairs. A major dilemma for the PSC is whether it can go beyond the ‘fire fighting’ approach that characterises its work and pursue a more interventionist preventive role by initiating or carrying out the implementation of the necessary structural and political reforms in member states that resolve conflicts and permanently address their root causes. Even if the PSC were willing, it lacks the requisite capacity and resources as well as member states’ support to take such an intrusive approach."