Algeria is a constitutional presidential system based on a bicameral legislation. Political power is dominated by the army and intelligence services, and centralized in the hands of opaque circles of unelected rulers commonly referred to as “Le Pouvoir”. Multi-party rule is officially in place since 1989, but in fact, Algeria remains an example of ‘liberalized autocracy’, a system combining authoritarian structures with democratic features that allow for its survival. Elections are characterized by irregularities and fraud, and electoral processes are not transparent, and the administration and judiciary are not fully independent, which prevents these institutions from serving a check and balance function. This fragmented system has led most Algerians to distrust formal institutions, which translates into low voter turnout (in 2017, only 12% of the electorate voted for the legislative elections). Considering political parties as unrepresentative, Algerians have expressed their demands through protests and sometimes through violent riots. From the end of the civil conflict until 2019, Algerian protests were mainly local and tied to specific socio-economic issues, such as housing or power supply, instead of nation-wide political protests.The purpose of this report is to provide analysis and policy implications to assist the African Union (AU), Regional Economic Communities (RECs), Member States and Development Partners in decision-making and in the implementation of peace and security related instruments. The opinions expressed in this report are the contributors' own and do not necessarily refl ect the views of the Institute for Peace and Security Studies.