The Africa Mining Vision (AMV), endorsed by the African Union (AU) in February 2009, is a regional policy framework that seeks to address the paradox of a resource-rich continent that continues to see enduring poverty. In order to encourage a context-specific domestication process of the AMV, AU member states are expected to develop a Country Mining Vision (CMV). CMVs facilitate national ownership of the AMV process, with the ultimate aim of yielding an equitable, inclusive and beneficial use of mineral resources in African countries. This policy brief highlights key prospects and challenges of the country level implementation process, and also offers key recommendations. It is a timely assessment, given that the Vision is almost a decade old, and given ongoing legal reforms in many mineral-rich African countries, where host states are seeking greater agency in their mining sectors.