Natural Resources is one of GGA’s five programmes and is centred on effective and sustainable management of Africa’s resources. This programme looks at measures to manage and sustain natural resources, reporting on progress, shortcomings and offering policy recommendations for development. The programme emphasises enhanced governance, stewardship and sustainability, particularly in respect of the continent’s nonrenewable resources. Over the past 23 years, South Africa has established a comprehensive regulatory framework to enable its mining industry to operate in a manner that protects and promotes the well-being and safety of communities affected by its operations (mining-affected communities). The framework is designed to facilitate the sustainable and equitable development of South Africa’s mining industry, while enabling and promoting inclusive growth and prosperity. While the framework has the potential to drive positive social and economic development, particularly at the local level, this report reveals a disjuncture between its intended impact and the lived reality of many of South Africa’s mining-affected communities.