Examining the first six APRM Programmes of Action, this paper traces how PoAs are developed, implemented and monitored, and how they could be strengthened going forward. This edition of the SAIIA Occasional Papers Series presents two papers by SAIIA researchers that reflect on critical aspects of the African Peer Review (APR) process - conducting research and developing Programmes of Action (PoAs) - that have both technical and political dimensions. The issues they raise in the interest of strengthening the African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM) are pertinent and timely.