The study sought to identify and document the root causes, dynamics and implications of the frequent act of rural banditry and other forms of violence in Northern Nigeria, and secondly make policy recommendations on how such a serious security challenge can be addressed. More comprehensively than has been attempted so far, the study examined the complex interface between broad ecological, demographic and historical factors on the one hand, and the specific local dynamics in selected states across the North, on the other hand. The most salient and compelling finding across the study can be categorized into seven broad themes, which include: changing demographic, ecological and climate conditions and their impact on agricultural and pastoral production systems.