"With an estimated population of 1.1 million, Maputo is the most densely populated city in Mozambique. The city is sharply divided into two areas: ’the cement city’, or the old colonial centre with paved roads and high-rise buildings, and the bairros – largely underserved, congested areas that house the majority of the city’s population. Situated on the Indian Ocean, the city is highly vulnerable to climate change impacts such as cyclones, flooding and sea level rise. Poverty and inequality, which are concentrated in the bairros, further exacerbate climate change vulnerabilities in the city. Chamanculo C is one such bairro where vulnerabilities have become evident during recent flood events. Responding to the urgent need to address urban deprivation, the municipality is currently implementing a neighbourhood upgrading programme in Chamanculo C. When it comes to debating climate-related action, displacement and relocation dominate the government’s thinking."