"Late in 2010, CDE convened a workshop of leading economists on South Africa’s persistent and extremely high levels of unemployment. What, we asked, is preventing us from creating more jobs? Given the large and diverse body of theoretical work and empirical evidence, what do we know about the policy levers affecting employment? What do we still need to find out? This report is a record of the proceedings, as well as of a series of post-workshop interactions with participants and a group of local and international experts. It sets out some of the key issues South Africa needs to address if it is to resolve its unemployment crisis. As with any controversial subject, participants disagreed on certain issues, and these perspectives have been recorded. The report should be read with this in mind."