"The authors of the various chapters examine whether investments amount to an additional threat to the lives and livelihoods of pastoralists (the others being climate change, land degradation, conflict, invasive species and others) or if investments are implemented in a manner which augments local livelihoods and will thus contribute to pastoral transformation. The focus on the pastoral rangelands of the Horn of Africa is adopted as the region has the highest concentration of pastoralists and the rangelands are often, owing to the sparse population density and expansive use of natural resources, considered as marginally used by their respective governments, thus making the land eligible for transfer to investors. The focus also turns from economic and development issues to questions of how these agricultural investments impact the socio-political and cultural rights of pastoralist communities and also influence conflict dynamics in pastoral areas."