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Sanctioning South Africa: Obstacles and Prospects

"Apartheid in South Africa constitutes the object of dispute between the Pretoria-based minority government of Pieter Botha and the majority black South Africans. Can sanctions, with this type of situation, be used as a means to effect a change of p…

The Apartheid Issue at the Security Council

"First I consider the issues upon which the Council has been divided when it has considered apartheid, and in particular the issues, arguments and assumptions that have separated the three Western Great Powers on these occasions from most of the oth…

SAIIA Newsletter No. 1, 1969

The newsletter starts with introductory notes and includes three articles: Diplomacy – Art or Science discusses the historical developments of diplomacy but also addresses the changes in modern diplomacy. In the article Australian Foreign Policy the…

Lessons for UN Electoral Certification from the 2010 Disputed Presidential Poll in Côte D’Ivoire

"While UN electoral certification in Côte d’Ivoire did not prevent parties from contesting the election results, the Ivorian case shows the utility and limits of certification as a tool in the UN electoral toolbox. Maintaining flexibility in the d…

SAIIA Southern Africa Record no 56

This Southern Africa Record contains the following texts: • South Africa, Namibia and Angola - Texts of UN Security Council Resolution 628 and 629, 16 January 1989 ; 632, 16 February 1989. - Text of UN Council for Namibia Decree No. 1. - Tex…

South West Africa and the international court: Two viewpoints on the 1971 advisory opinion

This document concerns the 1971 Advisory Proceedings on South West Africa in the International Court. The Court proceedings derived from political disputes at the United Nations. Arguments against South Africa were based on an anti-colonial campaig…

SAIIA International Affairs Bulletin, vol. 1, no. 1, 1977

This International Affairs Bulletin contains five articles: James Mayall’s article deals with Soviet and Chinese policies in Africa. It concentrates on Southern Africa, but Soviet and Chinese policies in the sub-continent should be related to their…

Fragile Stability: Post-Apartheid South Africa

Despite the international recognition and praise that South Africa received in 1994 for organizing its first free and fair, multiracial presidential elections, the country continues to exhibit increasing signs of state fragility on a number of diffe…

The Logic of the B(R)ICSAM Model for G8 Reform

The BRICs model developed by Goldman Sachs in its publication, Dreaming With BRICs: The Path to 2050, has attracted some considerable attention.1 From an economic perspective, it has enormous attractions in lending attention to four countries (Brazi…

Burundi: Democracy and Peace at Risk

Since the new, democratically elected government came to power in September 2005, the first since 1993, there has been marked deterioration in Burundi’s political climate. Led by the National Council for the Defense of Democracy-Forces for the Defen…

Congo: Staying Engaged after the Elections

On 6 December 2006, Joseph Kabila was sworn in as the first democratically elected president since Congolese independence, concluding a landmark electoral process largely devoid of major violence or gross irregularities. Democratic governance is…

Congo’s Elections- Making or Breaking the Peace

As the Congo approaches its first free elections in 40 years, the stability of the country remains at risk, for three main reasons. First, one of the main former rebel groups, the Congolese Rally for Democracy (RCD), is unpopular and stands to lose …

Élections au Burundi - Reconfiguration radicale du paysage politique

Les élections générales au Burundi viennent de conduire à une transformation totale du paysage politique. La victoire remarquable de l'ancienne rébellion du CNDD-FDD à tous les différents scrutins et l'élection de son candidat à la présidentielle, P…

Zimbabwe's Operation Murambatsvina: The Tipping Point?

Operation Murambatsvina (Restore Order) cost some 700,000 Zimbabweans their homes or livelihoods or both and otherwise affected nearly a fifth of the troubled country's population. Its impact, as documented in a scathing UN report, has produced a po…

Zimbabwe: The Politics of National Liberation and International Division

Despite the rising humanitarian costs of the crisis in Zimbabwe, the international community remains deeply divided about its response, allowing President Mugabe to believe that he can exploit the policy fissure between - broadly - the West and Afri…

Burundi: Democracy and Peace at Risk

Since the new, democratically elected government came to power in September 2005, the first since 1993, there has been marked deterioration in Burundi’s political climate. Led by the National Council for the Defense of Democracy-Forces for the Defen…

Can the Somali Crisis Be Contained?

Somalia has been drifting toward a new war since the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) was formed in late 2004 but the trend has recently accelerated dramatically. The stand-off between the TFG and its Ethiopian ally on the one hand, and the…

Côte d'Ivoire - Les demi-mesures ne suffiront pas

Les Ivoiriens n'iront pas élire leur futur Président le 30 octobre 2005, comme ils auraient dû le faire. Le Gouvernement de réconciliation nationale (GRN) n'a réconcilié personne. Il a encore moins préparé le terrain pour une élection présidentielle…

Northern Uganda: Seizing the Opportunity for Peace

With peace negotiations due to restart in the southern Sudanese town of Juba on 26 April, the ten-month-old peace process between the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) and the Ugandan government still has a chance of ending one of Africa’s longest, most …

Nigeria’s Elections: Avoiding a Political Crisis

Nigeria’s democracy faces a crucial test. Presidential, parliamentary and state gubernatorial and assembly elections scheduled for 14 and 21 April 2007 are not a routine quadrennial ritual. Success would offer the country the first opportunity to ac…

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