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MDC-T Defeat in Zimbabwe: Was it only due to Intimidation?

"In the relatively peaceful harmonized elections of July 2013, Zimbabwe’s President Robert Mugabe overwhelmingly defeated challenger Morgan Tsvangirai, 61% to 34%. Mugabe’s party, the Zimbabwe African National Union–Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF), also w…

EISA Observer Mission Report D R Congo The 2005 Constitutional Referendum in the DRC 18-19 December 2005

"This report outlines the EISA Observer Mission's assessment, findings and analysis of the referendum process in all its phases, specifically the pre-polling, polling and counting phases, as well as the post-referendum phase that includes the announ…

Zimbabweans Want Open and Honest Elections, Fear Political Intimidation and Violence

Elections are a critical mechanism through which citizens choose their representatives and hold them to account. Since attaining independence in 1980, Zimbabwe has unfailingly conducted regular elections – a total of eight parliamentary and five pre…

How Trustworthy and Professional is Togo's Military? Depends on whom you ask

In Togo, the military is a very influential political actor. In 1967, a military coup installed Eyadema Gnassingbé as president, and he held power until his death in 2005. Immediately after his death, Eyadema’s son, Faure Gnassingbé, was declared pr…

Malawians Increasingly Cautious about Exercising Right to 'Free' Political Speech

Under the one-party reign of President Hastings Kamuzu Banda, Malawi was described as a country “where silence rules” (Carver, 1990) because of the regime’s effective machinery for squashing dissent. This era ended with a 1993 referendum endorsing…

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